Landscape of Immunotherapy Options for Colorectal Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives beyond Immune Checkpoint Blockade
Gorzo A, Galos D, Volovat SR, Lungulescu CV, Burz C, Sur D
Life. 2022;12(2):229 (IF = 3.817)
Abstract Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent malignancy in Western countries and a major cause of death despite recent improvements in screening programs and early detection methods. In the last decade, a growing effort has been put into better understanding how the immune system interacts with cancer cells. Even if treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD1, anti-PD-L1, anti-CTLA4) were proven effective for several cancer types, the benefit for colorectal cancer patients is still limited. However, a subset of patients with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR)/microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) metastatic colorectal cancer has been observed to have a prolonged benefit to immune checkpoint inhibitors. As a result, pembrolizumab and nivolumab +/− ipilimumab recently obtained the Food and Drug Administration approval. This review aims to highlight the body of knowledge on immunotherapy in the colorectal cancer setting, discussing the potential mechanisms of resistance and future strategies to extend its use.